2016 ADVANCED SEMINAR & INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE

"Establishing a Global Knowledge Network: ISIS as a Threat and Legal Challenge and the Prevention of Recruitment"

ABOUT THE CONFERENCE

The terrorist organisation Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS) has not only been active in the Middle East since the end of the 1990s but also been a constant threat to the security in Europe for several years and lately also in the United States. The terrorist attacks in Paris and in California this year show the dangerousness of the group and especially of their anti-western propaganda. The organisation and their struggle to establish an Islamic state with its center located in Iraq attracts many people especially in Europe to join their fight in the Middle East as foreign fighters. Also, other citizens undergo training in terror camps in order to be prepared for attacks after their return home or just radicalize and attack Western societies in the homeland due to propaganda by ISIS. Western legal systems struggle to deal with the threat caused by the activities of ISIS. Especially the questions how to prevent citizens to become foreign fighters or how to deal with homecoming fighters is a legal challenge as neither criminal law nor other measures as police law provide clear and easy applicable solutions.

The answers of legal systems to the threat of terrorism by ISIS are complex and have only been partly addressed in research as they are related to often separately handled discussions in criminal law, police law and intelligence law. The Conference provided a holistic approach on the matter as it combined an empirical and legal view on specific phenomena of the activities of ISIS. The aim was to contribute in finding areas for improvement and suitable answers in the national justice systems.

The Conference brought together European and American experts in order to analyze the specific nature of the ISIS recruitment process and the different international and national legal answers to recruitments and homecoming fighters. The goal was to identify working solutions and existing deficiencies in the legal system in approaching terrorism. In addition, strategies for ongoing cooperation in countering and preventing violent extremism and building post-conflict justice in Syria were discussed.

WHY ISIS?

ISIS causes one of the main terrorist threats for Western societies and is responsible for several attacks with casualties in recent years, increasingly within Europe and since December 2015 in the USA. Several legal system have adjusted their legislation by broadening criminal offences, strengthening police and intelligence measures. The situation represents an additional challenge for border countries of the EU, like Croatia, with its south/south-eastern neighbours. With the terrorist attacks in November 2015 in Paris the quality of the attacks has changed insofar as the general population and not only specific persons or institutions have become the main target of the organisation. This development shows the ongoing need to review existing (and maybe insufficient) legal mechanism critically and to search for adequate and better solutions. The American legal system, especially its legal responses to the attacks of 9/11 and subsequent research, offers an invaluable comparative view for further developments in Europe. In addition, an effective solution to the threat by ISIS can only be reached if Western societies coordinate their efforts wherefore the American-European cooperation is of upmost importance. The strengthening of cooperation between Croatian and American experts was therefore one of the goals of the Conference.

As ISIS attracts people by claiming to lead a religious war and insofar promises to provide a just Muslim State, an analysis of the recruitment process formed the first part of the conference. By the extensive use of modern technology many especially young and vulnerable people in social networks can be reached, convinced and in the end be radicalized for the goals of ISIS. As the radicalization process has not been analyzed sufficiently the program addressed the mechanism used to recruit and shed a light on the recruiters (also with special emphasis on women recruiters) and the recruited from an empirical viewpoint.

The aspect in how far ISIS not only attracts personnel in Western societies but is also financed with Western money (by selling oil, arts and laundering money) formed a separate part of the event. The problem of how different legal systems deal with people recruiting and being recruited, especially with the plan to become foreign fighters, was the third element of the program. The fourth part analysed how the legal systems react to ISIS members coming back to their home countries. An emphasis was on police and intelligence surveillance measures and the cooperation between the affected states. The last part of the conference addressed future perspectives on prevention strategies and means for fighting extremism/terrorism in Europe and the United States.

PARTICIPANTS

Sunčana Roksandić Vidlička
Zagreb

Marc Engelhart
Freiburg, Germany

Aleksandar Maršavelski
Zagreb

Rik Coolsaet
Ghent, Belgium

Davor Derenčinović
Zagreb

Shereen Aziz Williams
Wales, UK

Aaron Hermann
Australia

Svetlana Paramonova
Russia / Croatia

Bettina Weißer
Münster, Germany

David Lowe
Liverpool, UK

Maggie Nardi
US Embassy in Zagreb

Edo Sujoldžić
Bosnia and Herzegovina

Maja Munivrana Vajda
Zagreb

Peter B. Campbell
Southampton, UK

Eliko Ciklauri-Lammich
Freiburg, Germany

Marin Bonačić
Zagreb

Sonja Borić
Croatia

Nora V. Demleitner
USA

Christophe Paulussen
The Netherlands

Bettina Weißer
Münster, Germany

John Vervaele
Utrecht, Netherlands

Ksenija Turković
Strasbourg, France

Lidija Horvat
Croatia

Katalin Ligeti
Luxembourg

Maja Serafin
Germany

Anna Mosna
Luxembourg

Cenap Cakmak
Turkey

PROGRAMME

Sunday, April 24
Arrival of participants


Monday, April 25
The ISIS Recruitment Process

 

9.00 – 9.30 Welcome and Introduction by course directors
9.30 – 10.15 Young, desperate and Muslim - Who are the recruits?

Professor Rik Coolsaet (Ghent University, Belgium)

10.15 – 10.30 Q & A
10:30 – 10.45 Coffee break
10.45 – 11.30 ISIS recruitment strategies and females as special targets

Mrs Shereen Aziz Williams (Regional Community Cohesion Coordinator, Newport, Wales, UK)

11.30 – 11.45 Q & A
11.45 – 12.30 International Legal Framework and Fight Against Terrorism

Professor Davor Derenčinović (University of Zagreb)

12.30 – 12.45 Q & A
13.00 – 14.30 Reception (IUC)

Lunch break

14.30 – 16.00 Participant Presentations:

Professor Aaron Hermann, Australia's migration policies and counter terrorism challenges

dr. sc. Svetlana Paramonova, Social Reintegration of the Former ISIS-Fighters. Russian Experience

Student presentations:

Enna Lujinović and Marta Visocka: How young girls from EU decide to join ISIS

Nora Soliman: The position of women in ISIS

16.15 – 18.00 Dubrovnik Sightseeing


Tuesday, April 26
Legal answers to the recruitment by ISIS

9.00 – 9:45 The legal situation in the Germany

Professor Bettina Weißer (University of Münster, Germany)

9.45 – 10.00 Q & A
10.00 – 10.45 The legal situation in the United Kingdom

Dr. David Lowe (Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom)

10.45 – 11.00 Q & A
11:00 – 11.15 Coffee break
11.15 – 12.00 Student presentations:

Andre von Horn: The legal response of France to the attacks in Paris

Janko Havaš: Janko Havaš: Dublin Regulation in light of Refugee Crisis

Kristýna Hořanská:  ISIS in the Czech Republic and the Czech Republic Security Strateg

12.00 – 13.45 Lunch break
14.00 – 14.45 U.S. efforts to counter violent extremism and the flow of foreign fighters to Syria and Iraq

Maggie Nardi (Deputy Chief of Mission of the U.S. Embassy in Zagreb)

14.45 – 15.00 Q & A
15.30 – 18.00 Participant Presentations:

Edo Sujoldžić: The experience of Bosnia and Herzegovina in countering terrorism and the work of the OSCE Mission in B&H

Student presentations:

Josip Salamunović: The Phenomenology of ISIS - Battlefront Europe - Development of ISIS movement, individual terrorist modus operandi and EU perspectives of response

Amy Richards: The recruiting of young people to ISIS: Physicians going to ISIS

Evangleine Prichard: What makes ISIS a particulary dangerous group to Western Europe and it's allies

Pierre Henri: The drugs and ISIS

Michaela Frydrychová: ‘ISIS' cyber activities and their impact

 


Wednesday, April 27
ISIS in Action – Europe financing ISIS?

9.00 – 9:45 Establishing ICC jurisdiction over ISIS - theoretical and practical challenges

Ass.Prof. Sunčana Roksandić Vidlička/Ass.Prof. Maja Munivrana Vajda (University of Zagreb)

9.45 – 10.00 Q & A
10.00 – 10.45 Funding conflict through cultural heritage – ISIS and illicit trafficking in cultural property

Peter B. Campbell (University of Southampton, UK)

10.45 – 11.00 Q & A
11:00 – 11.15 Coffee break
11.15 – 12.00 ISIS and Caucasus Region

Dr. Eliko Ciklauri-Lammich (Max-Planck-Institute for Foreign and International Criminal Law, Germany)

12.00 – 12.15 Q & A
12.30 – 14.30 Lunch break
14.45 – 16.15 Participant Presentations:

Ass.Prof. Marin Bonačić: A special tribunal – a viable solution to crimes committed by ISIS?

Sonja Borić:The subject of International Humanitarian Law in the context of the 'War on terror'

Student presentation:

Domagoj Dananić: Protecting cultural heritage in ISIS areas

Sara Opačić: Child soldiers in ISIS

16.15 – 16.30 Coffee break
16.30 – 18.00 Student Presentations:

Maša Berić:Islamic State and the idea of statehood

Mitchell Verbunt: ISIS and Netherlands

Lucija Dozan: Usage of social networks and modern technologies in ISIS propaganda

Suzana Poljak: Punishing Public Incitement to Terrorism

Vladimira Levova: Re-integrating as a not-military mean against ISIS

Katja Butković: Economic consequences to the tourism caused by terrorism


Thursday, April 28
ISIS Members coming back – A challenge for justice systems

9.00 – 9:45 Punishment, Surveillance or Reintegration?

Professor Nora V. Demleitner (Washington and Lee University, USA)

9.45 – 10.00 Q & A
10.00 – 10.45 Together against ISIS – police and justice cooperation in Europe

Dr. Christophe Paulussen (T.M.C. Asser Instituut, Netherlands)

10.45 – 11.00 Q & A
11:00 – 11.15 Coffee break
11.15 – 12.00 Participant presentation:
Lidija Horvat: Right to liberty of the persons accused for the terrorismStudent presentation:Jana Brezovičova: Legal Regulation of Terrorism on the EU Level
12.00 – 12.15 Q & A
12.30 – 14.30 Lunch break
14.45 – 15.30 Fighting ISIS with measures against Organized Crime?

Professor Katalin Ligeti (University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg)

15.30 – 15.45 Q & A
15.45 – 18.30 Participant Presentations:

Maja Serafin: UN-Regulations on Asset Freezing as a Countermeasure against Financing of ISIS

Anna Mosna: Laundering mechanisms in illicit trafficking of cultural goods: is a new legal framework needed

Student presentation:

Mia Šaka: Refugees point of view: How ISIS changed millions of lives

Lucija Ljubaj and Lucija Jurli: ISIS's destruction of cultural heritage and illegal tradein antiquities


Friday, April 29
Future Perspectives

9.00 – 9:45 The ICC as a Means for Fighting Terrorism?

Professor John Vervaele (Utrecht University, The Netherlands)

9.45 – 10.00 Q & A
10.00 – 10.45 Terrorism and the European Convention on Human Rights

Professor Ksenija Turković (European Court of Human Rights, France)

10.45 – 11.00 Q & A
11:00 – 11.15 Coffee break
11.15 – 12.30 The Post-conflict Situation in Syria

Professor Cenap Cakmak, (Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Turkey)

12.30 – 12.45 Q & A
12.45 – 13.15 The Future of Fighting Extremism in Europe

Dr. Marc Engelhart (Max-Planck-Institute for Foreign and International Criminal Law, Germany)

13.15 – 13.45 Closing Discussion

Moderators: Ass.Prof. Sunčana Roksandić Vidlička/Dr. Marc Engelhart

13.45 – 15.00 Closing Ceremony: Diplomas; Best student presentations


Saturday, April 30
Departure of participants

STUDENT PARTICIPANTS

A number of students from multiple countries in Europe and beyond actively participated in the Advanced Seminar and the Conference. In order to graduate from the course and receive the 4 ECTS points awarded by the University of Zagreb, students had to give a 10-15 minute short presentations on a relevant topic. The presentations proved success and inspired insightful discussions.

Enna Lujinović
How young girls from EU decide to join ISIS

Marta Visockac
How young girls from EU decide to join ISIS

Nora Soliman
The position of women in ISIS

Andre von Horn
The legal response of France to the attacks in Paris

Janko Havaš
Dublin Regulation in light of Refugee Crisis

Kristýna Hořanskác 
ISIS in the Czech Republic and the Czech Republic Security Strategy

Josip Salamunović
The Phenomenology of ISIS - Battlefront Europe - Development of ISIS movement, individual terrorist modus operandi and EU perspectives of response

Amy Richards
The recruiting of young people to ISIS: Physicians going to ISIS

Evangleine Prichard
What makes ISIS a particulary dangerous group to Western Europe and it's allies

Pierre Henri
The drugs and ISIS

Michaela Frydrychová
‘ISIS' cyber activities and their impact

Domagoj Dananić
Protecting cultural heritage in ISIS areas

Sara Opačić
Child soldiers in ISIS

Maša Berić
Islamic State and the idea of statehood

Mitchell Verbunt
ISIS and Netherlands

Lucija Dozan
Usage of social networks and modern technologies in ISIS propaganda

Suzana Poljak
Punishing Public Incitement to Terrorism

Vladimira Levova
Re-integrating as a not-military mean against ISIS

Katja Butković
Economic consequences to the tourism caused by terrorism

Mia Šaka
Refugees point of view: How ISIS changed millions of lives

Lucija Ljubaj
ISIS's destruction of cultural heritage and illegal tradein antiquities

Lucija Jurli
ISIS's destruction of cultural heritage and illegal tradein antiquities

Special thank you goes to the Student Teaching Assistants at the Department of Criminal Law of the Faculty of Law of the University of Zagreb who provided tremendous help in the organisation of the Advanced Seminar and the Conference: Domagoj Dananić and Janko Havaš.